The region is divided among three countries in a territorial dispute : Pakistan controls the northwest portion, India controls the central and southern portion and Ladakh, and China controls the northeastern portion. India controls the majority of the Siachen Glacier area including the Saltoro Ridge passes, whereas Pakistan controls the lower territory just southwest of the Saltoro Ridge. India controls 101 387 km² of the disputed territory, Pakistan 85 846 km² and China, the remaining 37 555 km².
Though these regions are in practice administered by their respective claimants, India has never formally recognised the accession of the areas claimed by Pakistan and China. India claims those areas, including the area "ceded" to China by Pakistan in the Trans-Karakoram Tract in 1963, are a part of its territory, while Pakistan claims the region, excluding Aksai Chin and Trans-Karakoram Tract.
Pakistan argues that Kashmir is culturally and religiously aligned with Pakistan (Kashmir is a Muslim region), while India bases its claim to Kashmir off Maharaja Hari Singh's decision to give Kashmir to India during the India-Pakistan split. Kashmir is considered one of the world's most dangerous territorial disputes due to the nuclear capabilities of India and Pakistan.
The two countries have fought several declared wars over the territory. The Indo-Pakistani War of 1947 established the rough boundaries of today, with Pakistan holding roughly one-third of Kashmir, and India two-thirds. The Indo-Pakistani War of 1965 began with a Pakistani attempt to seize the rest of Kashmir, erroneously banking on support from then-ally the United States. Both resulted in stalemates and UN - negotiated ceasefires.
More recent conflicts have resulted in success for India. It gained control of the Siachen Glacier after a low-intensity conflict that began in 1984, and Indian forces repulsed a Pakistani/Kashimir guerrilla attempt to seize positions during the Kargil War of 1999. This led to the coup d'etat of Pervez Musharraf in Pakistan.
One of the most interesting solutions proposed as a resolution to the Kashmir conflict is to cease all talks of reconciliation and re bordering and to leave Kashmir in the state that it is now. That means, to back away from any further communication and leave the parts of Kashmir to those who hold them now. It is understood that Kashmir will understandably not be given to the military ruler ship of Pervez Musharaff. Also, India's inclusion of Kashmir in its own complex system would create greater trouble for that country. Finally, Kashmiri independence is not an option due to their prime location between combating neighbors.